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Risks and Challenges of Using Artificial Intelligence in Medicine


by Wiktoria Stretskite


In recent years, the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on various areas of life has become incredibly prominent, especially in critical areas such as medicine and healthcare. In 2023, our company Znojdziem, in its role as HR Partner, actively collaborated with businesses in the IT and healthcare sectors. This cooperation has allowed us to observe first-hand how AI is becoming more deeply integrated into medical and scientific research, with a significant impact on the way patients' health is diagnosed, treated and managed.

While AI's contribution to improving the quality and accessibility of healthcare services is undeniable, its adoption comes with not only new opportunities, but also significant challenges. These challenges arise at the intersection of key areas - information technology and healthcare - and require careful analysis and development of strategies to overcome them.

The challenges we face include the technical limitations of AI, such as accuracy, reliability, and learning from data that may be imperfect or not fully represent the right variety of clinical cases. In addition, there are significant ethical and legal issues related to patient data privacy, fairness and transparency in decision making, and liability for AI-assisted errors.

This introduction sets the tone for our discussion, in which we will try to explore the mentioned challenges in more depth and propose ways to address them. We hope that this discussion will help not only to identify and minimize the potential risks associated with the use of AI in medicine, but also to optimize the process of its integration into medical practice, making it safer and more effective for all healthcare stakeholders.

Accuracy and reliability of AI algorithms

One of the key limitations of AI in medicine is the dependence of the accuracy of algorithms on the quality and volume of available data. AI systems, especially those that use machine learning, require large amounts of data for training. These data should be well annotated, represent the diversity of clinical cases, and be free from error and bias.

  • Data problems: Even minor errors in data can lead to serious errors in AI output. For example, if the training data contains bias towards a certain demographic group, the AI ​​results may not be fair or applicable to the broader population.
  • Retraining: Another problem is overfitting, which is when AI adapts too closely to the training data and loses its ability to generalize to new data. This can lead to high performance on test data but poor performance in real clinical practice.

Reliability and Verifiability

AI systems must not only be accurate, but also reliable. This means that their behavior must be predictable and they must be able to respond appropriately to unexpected situations or anomalies in the data.

  • Explainability of AI decisions: In medicine, it is critical that decisions made by AI can be explained. Health care providers and patients must understand the basis of which data and how a particular conclusion or recommendation was reached.
  • Compliance: AI systems must meet strict medical and technological standards to ensure they are safe and effective. Failure to meet these standards can result in serious consequences, including medical errors.

These technical limitations require a careful approach to the development and implementation of AI in medical practice. Overcoming these challenges and creating reliable, efficient, and safe AI systems will require a collaborative effort among developers, clinicians, and regulators.

Ethical and legal challenges

The use of artificial intelligence in medicine raises complex ethical and legal issues that must be carefully considered to ensure effective and safe medical practice.

Ethical challenges

Privacy and data protection: Artificial intelligence requires access to large volumes of medical data to learn and function. This compromises the confidentiality of patient data, especially if the data is used or shared without strict security measures.

Bias and discrimination: AI systems can reinforce existing biases if the training data contains discriminatory patterns. This may result in uneven quality of care across different populations.

Transparency and explainability: Medical decisions made based on AI should be transparent and understandable to patients and medical staff. Problems arise when the algorithms are too complex to understand or when manufacturers hide the inner workings of the AI ​​to maintain trade secrets.

Legal challenges

Responsibility for errors: Determining liability for AI-related medical errors is challenging. When AI fails, who should be held accountable—the software developers, the medical institutions, or the doctors using the technology?

Regulation and standardization: Specific legal and regulatory frameworks for the use of AI in medicine need to be developed to ensure its safety, effectiveness and fairness. Currently, existing laws often do not take into account the unique aspects and challenges presented by medical AI.

Overcoming Challenges

To overcome these ethical and legal challenges, targeted measures must be taken:

  • Strengthening privacy and data security policies to ensure the protection of patients' personal information.
  • Development and implementation of algorithms for detecting and correcting bias in medical AI systems.
  • Increasing transparency of AI systems, providing access to information about how the AI ​​makes its conclusions.
  • Creating clear regulatory standards and a framework of responsibility for all participants in the use of medical AI.

These steps will help reduce risks and improve the integration of artificial intelligence into medical practice, making it safer and more effective for everyone involved.

Impact on clinical practice

Artificial intelligence is having a significant impact on clinical practice, changing traditional methods of diagnosis, treatment and interaction with patients. These changes represent both opportunities to improve health care and potential risks that must be considered.

Statistics and Research

Research shows that AI can significantly improve diagnostic accuracy. For example, a 2019 study demonstrates that machine learning algorithms can diagnose skin conditions with an accuracy comparable to that of experienced dermatologists. The algorithms, trained on a database of more than 16,000 images of skin diseases, showed an accuracy of 95%, which compares with 87% for professional dermatologists.

Changes in the role of medical personnel

The introduction of AI into clinical practice is also changing the role of medical personnel. Doctors and nurses can now use AI to help them analyze medical data, allowing them to focus on the more complex and human aspects of patient care. For example, AI can automate routine tasks such as data entry and initial symptom analysis, freeing up healthcare workers' time to interact directly with patients.

Interaction with patients

AI is also changing the way healthcare staff interact with patients. AI-based systems can provide personalized health and treatment information to patients in real time. However, it also raises concerns about the quality and personal nature of medical advice. It is important that technology complements, rather than replaces, the face-to-face interaction that remains a key element of medical practice.

Statistical problems and challenges

Not all studies confirm the unlimited possibilities of AI. In some cases, for example, it has been found that AI can misinterpret medical data due to bias in the training sets. Such errors can lead to inappropriate diagnosis and treatment, especially in multicultural societies where differences in demographics can be significant.

AI has the potential to radically transform clinical practice, improving the efficiency and accuracy of healthcare services. However, to fully integrate artificial intelligence, careful risk management is required, taking into account both technical and ethical aspects. Healthcare professionals should be actively involved in the development and evaluation of AI systems to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Overcoming Risks and Designing Safe AI Systems

In order for artificial intelligence to become a reliable and safe tool in medicine, it is necessary to develop strategies and methods that can minimize its risks and increase the effectiveness of its use.

Risk Mitigation Strategies

  1. Improving data quality: The basis of any AI system is data. Improving the accuracy, volume, and variety of data on which AI is trained is critical to preventing bias and errors. This includes developing standards for data collection and processing, and using data augmentation techniques to increase the diversity of training examples.
  2. Regular testing and validation: AI systems must undergo rigorous tests at various stages of their development and implementation. This includes validation both on historical data and in real clinical settings to ensure their reliability and safety.
  3. Transparency and explainability: Developing AI systems with transparency and explainability in mind will allow healthcare providers and patients to better understand how decisions are made. It also simplifies the process of testing and refining algorithmic solutions.

Development of secure systems

  1. Ethical Framework: Developing an ethical framework for the use of AI in medicine will help establish clear rules and regulations regarding respect for the rights and interests of patients, as well as ensuring fairness and non-discrimination.
  2. Multidisciplinary teams: Involving a wide range of specialists - from doctors and data analysts to lawyers and ethicists - in the process of developing and implementing AI will ensure that various aspects and needs are taken into account. This approach contributes to the creation of more reliable solutions that are adapted to real medical practice.
  3. Continuous learning and adaptation: Artificial intelligence must be able to adapt to new environments and changing clinical data. Implementing mechanisms for continuous learning and adaptation will help AI remain relevant and effective even as medical practices and conditions change.


The development and implementation of safe and effective AI systems in medicine requires a comprehensive approach that includes strict quality control, ethical standards, multidisciplinary collaboration and constant updating. Using these strategies and techniques will help minimize the risks associated with the use of artificial intelligence and ensure its positive impact on the medical industry.